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War, by its very nature, is a destructive force. And the magnificence of an ancient building, one whose history was forged over centuries, can vanish with the push of a button or the squeeze of a trigger. This list highlights 10 historically and culturally significant sites lost to the ravages of war, some as recently as 2013.

戰爭從本質來說是一種破壞力。而古代建筑的華麗往往是歷經數個世紀歷史打造出來,卻只需按下按鈕或觸動扳機間便灰飛煙滅。本文列出10個毀于戰爭的重要歷史和文化建筑,有的甚至2013年剛剛發生。

10、Ferhat Pasha Mosque
Bosnia

10、福利特帕夏清真寺
波斯尼亞

01

Photo credit: Alfons Schreiner

攝影:Alfons Schreiner

During the Bosnian War of the ’90s, Banja Luka, Bosnia’s second-largest city, saw heavy fighting. One of the most remarkable structures in the city was the Ferhat Pasha Mosque, an exceptional example of 16th-century Islamic and Ottoman architecture.

在90年代波斯尼亞戰爭中,波斯尼亞第二大城市盧克成為重要戰場。該市最有紀念意義的建筑之一福利特帕夏清真寺是16世紀伊斯蘭和奧斯曼建筑的優秀范例。



9、Christ Church Greyfriars
England

9、格瑞弗萊斯天主教堂
英格蘭

02

Photo credit: Gryffindor/Wikimedia

攝影:維基百科



8、Apamea
Syria

阿帕美古城
敘利亞

03

Photo credit: Bernard Gagnon

圖片出處:Bernard Gagnon

Apamea, the ancient “Treasure City,” sits on the bank of Syria’s Orontes River. It was once home to the kings of the Seleucid Empire, and it later housed the Romans, growing to a population of 500,000.

阿帕美古城,古代“珍寶之城”,坐落在敘利亞奧龍特斯河岸邊。它曾經是塞琉古帝國皇帝居住的地方,后來被羅馬人占領,發展成有五十萬人的城市。

More than a millennium later, it rose again, now as a base during the Crusades. Its magnificent paved streets, beautiful mosaics, and bright white columns carved with intricate designs were a sight to behold. Its long history made it one of the Middle East’s most important archaeological sites.

一千多年后,阿帕美城再度興起,現有古城遺跡為十字軍東征時期留下的。古城宏偉齊整的街道,漂亮的鑲嵌畫和雕刻精美的白色圓柱令人賞心悅目。其悠久的歷史使其成為中東最重要的考古遺址之一。

During the current conflict in Syria, Apamea has been damaged to such an extent that many historians believe it can never be restored. Not only has Apamea been devastated by bombing, there have also been those who have taken advantage of the chaos by ransacking the ancient city, looting its treasures. The site now lies ravaged, its columns broken and its mosaics smashed.

在當前的敘利亞沖突中阿帕美城受到損壞,很多歷史學家認為它將永遠不能恢復。阿帕美城不僅遭到轟炸,也有一些人利用混亂洗劫這座古城,掠奪財富。古城現在被毀壞,它的白色圓柱和鑲嵌畫都被破壞了。

7、The Old Summer Palace
China

圓明園

中國

04

Photo credit: Yiyuan Homes

圖片來源:Yiyuan Homes

The Old Summer Palace, also known as Yuan Ming Yuan, was a complex of gardens and buildings in Beijing constructed in the 18th century. The palace itself served as a base of operations for Qing Dynasty emperors to live and handle government affairs, while its grounds were filled with examples of beautiful architecture, which included magnificent temples, pavilions, and bridges adorned with ornate Chinese designs. The surrounding gardens were equally impressive, with lush green lawns and exotic flowers growing around serene ponds and rivers.

古夏宮,也就是圓明園,是18世紀在北京建造的一系列花園和建筑綜合體。宮殿的基本運作是為清朝的皇帝們居住和處理政事而服務。園中滿是美麗的建筑,其中包括宏偉的廟宇樓閣和裝飾著華麗中國元素的橋梁。周圍的花園也同樣令人印象深刻,郁郁蔥蔥的綠色草坪和充滿異域風情的花朵,生長在寧靜的池塘和河流上

In 1860, at the climax of the First Opium War, a French and British expeditionary force occupied Beijing and discovered the palace. Although the Emperor had fled, most of the palace’s contents had been left behind. Meeting little resistance, the troops looted the complex of its riches. The British High Commissioner to China, Lord Elgin, then ordered the destruction of the palace in retaliation for the torture of British and Indian troops.

1860年,在第一次鴉片戰爭的高潮時,一支英法遠征軍占據了北京并發現了宮殿。盡管皇帝已經逃離,宮殿的大部分寶物卻被留下。沒怎么遇到抵抗,英法聯軍把圓明園洗劫一空。然后英國駐中國高級專員埃爾金勛爵,出于對清朝施于英國和印度軍隊酷刑的報復,下令燒毀宮殿。

Although its magnificent buildings are now lost forever, the site of The Old Summer Palace still attracts thousands of visitors each year.

盡管美輪美奐的建筑永遠不再了,圓明園的遺址依然每年吸引來成千上萬的游人。

6、Ancient Shrines And Mausoleums
Mali

古老的神殿和陵墓
馬里



5、The Porcelain Tower Of Nanjing
China

南京琉璃塔(譯者注:即大報恩寺)
中國

06

Standing almost 80 meters (260 ft) tall, the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing must have been an amazing sight. Hung with 140 lamps, its eight sides were beautifully decorated with images of the Buddha, and its nine interior levels boasted a vast array of religious carvings and statues. It is said that on a sunny day, light would reflect off the sides of the tower and give it an ethereal glow.

幾近80米(250英尺)高的南京琉璃塔必定是一座令人驚嘆的奇觀。懸掛140盞長明燈,八面精裝佛像,傳言其室內九層有海量宗教雕刻畫像。據說若逢晴日,光映塔身,金碧輝煌、光芒四射。

In 1801, lightning struck the tower, causing three sections to collapse. However, it would be almost 50 years before the Porcelain Tower met its ultimate fate.

1801年,閃電擊中塔身,造成三節塔身崩壞。而這差不多是琉璃塔遭遇其最終命運的50年前。

In 1850, civil war broke out in southern China, and the conflict soon spread to Nanjing. Concerned that the enemy could use it as a lookout point, rebel forces occupying the surrounding area decided to demolish the tower. Its crumbling remains were left where they fell, the porcelain bricks that once shone so magnificently reduced to a depressing pile of scorched rubble.

1850年,內戰(譯者注:太平天國運動)在中國南方爆發,并迅速蔓延到南京。考慮到會作為瞭望塔為敵所用,叛軍在占領周邊地區時決定拆除它。殘跡就在它倒下的地方,曾經光芒四射的琉璃磚化成令人沮喪的瓦礫堆。

The remains of the tower were later repurposed for use in the construction of other buildings, although some sections were saved and are now on display in the Nanjing Museum. On a positive note, in 2010, a Chinese businessman donated a staggering one billion Yuan to the Nanjing government to fund the reconstruction of the tower. Although the original is now lost forever, it is hoped that the new building will capture some of the majesty of the Porcelain Tower.

塔身存留部分后來被用以修造其他建筑,不過還是有一部分得以保存,如今展覽于南京博物館。值得欣慰的是,在2010年,一名中國商人大手筆的捐出10億元給南京政府作為重建寶塔的基金。原塔已永久湮滅,希望新塔或多或少能捕捉到琉璃塔的韻味。

4、The Great Mosque Of Aleppo
Syria

阿勒波大清真寺,
敘利亞

07

Photo credit: Guillaume Piolle
Aleppo’s Great Mosque is located within the city’s historic Al-Jalloum district. The largest of its kind in the area, the mosque supposedly houses the remains of Zechariah, father of John the Baptist. Because of its historical importance, the complex is recognized as being a UNESCO World Heritage site.

阿勒波的大清真寺位于市內的Al-Jalloum歷史老區。作為該地區最大型的一座清真寺,這座清真寺據說內存放著希伯來先知撒迦利亞的遺骸,也就是施洗者約翰的父親。由于這座歷史遺跡的重要性,已經成為了聯合國教科文組織的世界遺產地。



3、Yongmyong Temple
North Korea

永明寺,
朝鮮

08

Pyongyang’s Yongmyong Buddhist temple was built over 1,500 years ago and was named for an ancient king, Dongmyeong of Goguryeo. According to legend, a chambermaid of the queen was struck by lightning and shortly after gave birth to Dongmyeong. The king, fearful of this supernatural event, threw the young child into a pigsty. The child survived, and the king, taking this as an act of divine intervention, changed his mind and ordered the queen to raise the boy.

平壤的yongmyong佛寺始建于1500年前,佛寺的名字是為了高句麗時期的一位皇帝高朱蒙命名的。據傳說,皇后的一位侍女遭遇雷擊,隨后產下高朱蒙。皇帝出于對這種超自然事件的恐懼,將這個嬰兒扔入豬圈。而孩子奇跡般幸存下來,皇帝認為這是神的旨意,隨后改變主意并命令皇后撫育這孩子。

Famed for its beautiful scenery and gardens filled with cherry trees, the temple was a popular tourist attraction in its day. It underwent several alterations throughout its life, including extensive restoration work carried out in 1920.

這座寺廟以景色優美而著稱,花園里種滿櫻桃樹,當時一直是人們熱衷的旅游景點。寺廟經歷了數次改建,包括1920年的大規模重建。

The US destroyed the Yongmyong Temple in a carpet bombing attack during the Korean War. One area of the temple, the Pubyok pavilion, was rebuilt shortly after the war and is now registered as a national treasure of North Korea.

在朝鮮戰爭期間,美國地毯式轟炸摧毀了yongmyong寺。戰爭結束后不久,寺廟里的pubyok亭得到了重建,目前是朝鮮的國家文物古跡。



1、 Royal Opera House
Malta

皇家大劇院。
馬耳他

10

Designed by renowned British architect Edward Barry and completed in 1866 following four years of construction, the Royal Opera House once stood proudly on the corner of Strada Reale in the historic city of Valletta. Now covered in restaurants and boutiques, Strada Reale shows little evidence that it once played host to one of Malta’s most magnificent examples of neo-classical architecture. Only a few columns and a terrace now remain as evidence of its existence.

由著名的英國建筑學家巴里設計,經歷四年建設,1866年完工的皇家大劇院曾一度驕傲地矗立在歷史名城瓦萊塔的strada街角。現在strada reale街上遍布著餐館和服裝店,幾乎看不出馬耳他最華麗的新古典主義建筑典范的一點痕跡。只有留下的少數廊柱和一段樓梯還顯示著當年的古跡。

The Royal Opera House had quite a turbulent history. On May 25, 1873, a fire broke out inside the building and destroyed much of its extravagantly designed interior. Reconstruction work was carried out almost immediately, and the theatre reopened its doors four years later to Giuseppe Verdi’s Aida. But in the following century, the Royal Opera House became an unsuspecting victim of the German Luftwaffe. A single air raid on April 7, 1942 left the magnificent building in ruins.

皇家大劇院經歷了一段混亂的歷史。1873年5月25日,一場大火破壞了內部大部分豪華裝飾。重建工作立刻展開,四年后,這家劇院就重新開始迎來威爾第的《阿依達》。但在隨后的一個世紀,皇家大劇院成為德國空軍的犧牲品。1942年4月7日的一次轟炸導致這個優秀建筑毀于一旦。