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NEW DELHI: Protests over the contentious Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) spread across the country on Monday with students, some sections of the civil society and opposition political parties holding demonstrations at several places urging the Centre to revoke the Act. Here is all you need to now:

新德里消息:周一,抗議備受爭議的《公民身份修正法案》活動在全國蔓延,學生、民間團體的一些部門和反對黨派在多個地方舉行示威,敦促中央政府撤銷該法案。下面是一些你需要知道的信息:

What is the Citizenship (Amendment) Act?

什么是《公民身份(修正)法案》?

The bill that is now an Act makes it easier for the non-Muslim immigrants from India''s neighbours - Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan - to become citizens of India. Though the Bill doesn''t spell it out clearly, but the fact that it entitles Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis, and Christians facing religious persecution in the three nations, to seek Indian citizenship, highlights the exclusion of Muslims.

議案現在已成為了法案。有了該法案,來自印度鄰國:巴基斯坦、孟加拉國和阿富汗的非穆斯林移民成為印度公民就更方便了。議案給這三個國家面臨宗教迫害的印度教徒、錫克教徒、佛教徒、耆那教徒、帕西教徒和基督徒尋求印度公民身份的權利,雖然沒有明確規定,但議案明確將穆斯林排除在外。

The Act says the refugees of the six communities will be given Indian citizenship after residing in India for five years, instead of 11 years earlier.

根據該法案,來自這六個宗教團體的難民在印度居住滿5年可以獲得印度公民身份,而之前獲得印度公民身份則需要11年時間。

Protests across the country

全國各地的抗議活動



Ruling CPI(M)-led LDF and opposition Congress headed UDF in Kerala held a joint protest against the amended Citizenship act with chief minister Pinarayi Vijayan slamming the move as an attempt to "curb freedom".

在喀拉拉邦,印共(馬)為主的左翼聯盟和反對黨國大黨領導的統一民主聯盟舉行聯合抗議,反對修改后的公民身份法案,首席部長皮納拉伊·維賈揚抨擊此舉企圖“限制自由”。

Who will benefit from the law?

誰將從中受益?

The Citizenship (Amendment) Act grants citizenship to Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhist, Jains and Parsis - from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh who had arrived in India before December 31, 2014. The legislation applies to those who were “forced or compelled to seek shelter in India due to persecution on the ground of religion”. It aims to protect such people from proceedings of illegal migration from the neighbouring countries.

《公民身份(修正)法案》給予2014年12月31日前從阿富汗、巴基斯坦和孟加拉國抵達印度的印度教徒、基督徒、錫克教徒、佛教徒、耆那教徒和帕西人印度公民身份。該法適用于那些“因宗教迫害而被強制或強迫在印度尋求庇護的人”。目的是保護這些人免受鄰國的非法移民訴訟。

The requirement to stay in India for those belonging to any of these 6 religion for at least 11 years before applying for Indian citizenship has been reduced to five years.
Indian citizenship, under present law, is given either to those born in India or if they have resided in the country for a minimum of 11 years.

來自這六種宗教團體的人,之前如果想申請印度國籍,必須要在印度停留至少11年,新法案將停留時間降到了5年。
根據現行法律,印度公民可以是在印度出生的人,也可以是在印度居住滿11年及以上的人。

Why the protests?

為什么會有抗議?

There are two distinct rallying points of protests against the Act. In the northeast, the protest is against the Act''s implementation in their areas. Most of them fear that if implemented, the Act will cause a rush of immigrants that may alter their demographic and linguistic and cultural uniqueness.

反對該法案的抗議活動有兩個明顯的集結點。東北地區反對該法案在當地實施。東北地區大多數人擔心,如果該法案得以實施,則會給當地帶來移民潮,而這可能會改變當地的人口結構,以及語言和文化的獨特性。

In the rest of India, like in Kerala, West Bengal and in Delhi, people are protesting against the exclusion of Muslims, alleging it to be against the ethos of the Constitution.

印度的其他地方,比如喀拉拉邦、西孟加拉邦和德里,人們抗議法案排斥穆斯林,聲稱這違反了憲法精神。

The exclusions

例外

The Citizenship (Amendment) Act does not apply to tribal areas of Tripura, Mizoram, Assam and Meghalaya because of being included in the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution. Also areas that fall under the Inner Limit notified under the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873, will also be outside the Act''s purview. This keeps almost entire Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland out of the ambit of the Act.

《公民身份(修正)法案》不適用于特里普拉、米佐拉姆、阿薩姆和梅加拉亞邦的部落地區,因為這些地區被列入《憲法》的第6個附件。此外,根據1873年制定《孟加拉東部邊境章程》,屬于內部限制的地區也不在該法的范圍之內。這樣的話幾乎整個阿魯納恰爾邦、米佐拉姆邦、曼尼普爾邦和那加蘭邦被排除在法案執行范圍之外。

NRC lix to the controversial Act

與爭議法案有關的國民登記制度



Government''s stand on CAA

政府對《公民身份修正法案》的立場

The Centre has rejected the suggestions that the bill is anti-Muslim. Home minister Amit Shah has said the measure has the endorsement of 130 crore citizens of the country as it was the part of the BJP manifesto in 2014 as well as 2019 Lok Sabha elections.

中央政府否認了該法案反穆斯林的說法。印度內政部長阿米特·沙阿表示,這項措施得到了印度1.3億公民的支持,這是2014年印度人民黨宣言的一部分,也是2019年下議院選舉的一部分。

The Act does not discriminate against anyone and does not snatch anyone''s rights, Shah said. The home minister said under the Act, citizenship will be granted to refugees coming from the three countries after facing religious persecution there even without documents, including ration cards.
This bill is not even .001 per cent against Muslims. It is against infiltrators, the home minister has reiterated.

該法案沒有歧視任何人,沒有剝奪任何人的權利,內政部長表示,根據該法案,來自這三個國家面臨宗教迫害的難民,即使沒有包括配給卡在內的文件,也可以獲得印度公民身份。
該項提案對穆斯林的反對率甚至不到0.01%。內政部長重申,該項法案主要針對滲透者的。

Bill passes Lok Sabha test

下議院通過了提案

On December 9, the Lok Sabha passed the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill after a seven-hour-long debate with 334-106 votes.

12月9日,下議院經過7個小時的辯論,以334票對106票的結果通過了《公民身份(修正)提案》。

Bill Passed in Rajya Sabha

上議院通過了議案

On December 11, the Rajya Sabha approved the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, thus completing the legislative procedure for giving Indian citizenship to non-Muslims migrants from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. The Bill was passed with 125-105 votes.

12月11日,上議院通過了《公民身份(修正)提案》,從而完成了向來自巴基斯坦、阿富汗和孟加拉國的非穆斯林移民授予印度公民身份的立法程序。該提案以125票贊成,105票反對獲得通過。

Bill gets President''s assent

總統批準提案

On December 12, President Ram Nath Kovind gave his assent to the Bill, turning into an Act

12月12日,拉姆·納特·科溫德總統批準了該提案,該提案正式成為法案。